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Abbreviations (PDF)


Boosey & Hawkes

This work is available from Boosey & Hawkes for the world.


World Premiere
Washington, DC
João Carlos Martins, piano / National Symphony Orchestra, Washington / Howard Mitchell
Programme Note

After the success of his First Piano Sonata, Op. 22 written in 1952, Ginastera did not compose for the piano again until 1961 when he accepted a commission from the Koussevitsky Foundation to write a new piano concerto. The influence of his popular sonata is apparent in the new effort, as three of the concerto’s four movements seem to be expanded versions of the second, third, and fourth movements of his First Piano Sonata.

The first movement’s Cadenza e varianti opens with three chords played by the orchestra, introducing a 12-tone theme and answered in the piano with an elaborate, virtuosic octave cadenza—"a melodic transposition of the same row." Ginastera goes on to state that "on these basic elements is built the whole movement, in which piano and orchestra alternate with violent contrasts. The ‘varianti’ are ten micro-structures in different moods—variations of the original elements." The movement ends with a return to the orchestra/piano cadenza dialogue, which now builds to an intense and exciting climax.

The second movement, Scherzo allucinante, similar in mood to the First Sonata’s second movement Presto misterioso, "is very fast and is played throughout with the dynamics ‘pianissimo.’ The movement is divided into five sections—an arch form—three central symmetrical sections framed by an introduction and a coda; a pointillist instrumentation is used." Ginastera loves contrast and color and this movement provides both. Add to this some wonderful orchestra percussion effects and the title of this "hallucinating" scherzo seems justified.

The third movement Adagissimo, similar to the Adagio of the First Sonata, "is an intense lyrical prelude formed by three sections which resemble ternary form, reaching in the middle part a climax of passionate character." Ginastera also quotes a motif from the second movement of Beethoven’s Fourth Piano Concerto, recalling a similar dialogue/contest between soloist and orchestra. The movement ends quietly with Ginastera’s signature motif—an ascending scale that imitates the open strings of the guitar.

In violent contrast to the quiet but intense slow movement, the hammering toccata begins. "The fourth and last movement, Toccata concertata with strong and vigorous rhythms, is a real piece of bravura in which there is a constant dialogue between piano and orchestra. The form recalls the seven section rondo form, preceded by a short introduction and followed by a coda." This is the movement popularized by the English progressive rock band Emerson, Lake, and Palmer, and it contains all the elements found in the fourth-movement Ruvido ed ostinato of the First Piano Sonata. What primitive, raw energy is unleashed in this finale! The orchestra and piano join forces and pull out all the stops to produce an exciting conclusion to one of the masterworks of the twentieth-century piano concerto literature. Listening to the First Concerto leaves no doubt that the composer is a superb craftsman who knows what true virtuosity is all about!
—Barbara Nissman
Program note reproduced from CD liner notes with the permission of the author.


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